Inventory of Manuscripts from Qumran


This file should eventually contain a list of all the known manuscripts from the eleven original caves excavated at Qumran and about which information is presently available. The list has been compiled from three readily available paperback sources 1, 2, 3. The other references most frequently cited here are from the serial work in progress Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (of Jordan) (Oxford; Clarendon Press, 1955—), the individual numbers of which are designated herein as DJD I, DJD II, DJD III, etc.

The series numbers, names and official abbreviations assigned to the various manuscripts have been changed in the past and may be changed in the future. They remain under the control, primarily, of the Israel Antiquities Authority and the various editors selected to publish the official editions of the scholarly work on the scrolls. These definitive sources should be consulted by anyone working seriously in this field. This list is intended mostly to satisfy amateur scholars, like me, who are very curious but still have a lot to learn.

The state of preservation of the manuscripts varies from almost complete to almost non-existent. Many of the manuscripts are made up of more than one fragment. Once the fragments had been reassembled into manuscripts, each manuscript was given the series designation provided in this list. Some manuscripts consist of a single small fragment. Others contain nearly the entire text of the original. Many unclassified fragments remain unidentified; neither a part of one of the larger scrolls nor a part of any known text. These fragments were each assigned their own unique series designations.

(In general, the task has been to assemble smaller fragments into larger fragments wherever joins can be identified. The jigsaw puzzle aspect of the assembly ends when all the available joins have been identified. The assembled larger fragments have typically been collected together based on other evidence into larger manuscripts even when no common joins existed. Such evidence includes language, letter shapes, spacing between rows and columns, widths of the columns, the color of the scroll material, the nature of the damage to the scroll material, the nature of the text [especially if it is from a known text for which a more complete version exists, etc.] Some of this is straightforward and some of it is not. There is the chance that future scholarship will force a revision in some of these assignments, however, everyone seems to agree that the job done to date was done very thoroughly and with a high degree of care, skill and precision.)

Some of these manuscripts are copies of the same, or nearly the same text. Each manuscript copy received its own distinct series designation. But for many of these copies the same official abbreviations and/or names are often used. To distinguish among the copies, superscript letters are often used when referring to them by name.

Most of the early manuscripts and a high percentage of the Cave 4 manuscripts were not acquired through personal excavation by the official archaeological expeditions. They were purchased from the Bedouin who found them. The buyers were primarily the representatives of Jordan and Israel. This makes it impossible to assign specific fragments and documents to specific caves with complete confidence (chain of custody and provenance are undocumented). It is not even entirely certain that all manuscripts discovered by the Bedouin have been accounted for. Comments about the distribution of documents among the various caves and discussions of why certain manuscripts were stored in certain caves must include the implicit proviso that it is all subject to change should more data or manuscripts become available. (Note that finding a fragment of a purchased manuscript in one cave does not necessarily prove, only improves the likelihood, that the purchased manuscript was originally taken from that same cave.)

Initially, de Vaux and Milik divided the texts into biblical (included in the Hebrew Bible) and non-biblical categories before parsing them among the members of the editorial group. The following superscripts are used here to identify individual manuscripts in each category according to that original classification:

b Biblical Text

¤ Non-Biblical Text

The term "non-biblical" should not be understood as non-religious. Almost all the works in the Qumran library are religious in some sense. "Non-biblical" simply means not currently part of the accepted Jewish Canon. In other words, these are among the texts that did not make it into the Bible.

Over time the editors have occasionally chosen to renumber and rename certain of the manuscripts. This seems to have been due in part to their evolving understanding of how the fragments and manuscripts fit together. Furthermore, not all scholars who have studied the texts agree on how each of them should be reassembled from the available fragments. For these, and perhaps other, reasons, there are occasional missing numbers.

It is important to remember that these series designations are intended to refer to individual manuscripts. There are many techniques that can be used to determine if two fragments of one text are from the same or separate manuscripts. These include the color and texture of the parchment or papyrus on which it is written, and the handwriting, language and idiomatic usages of the scribe(s) who wrote it (them). It should be obvious that if even a single part of the two fragments overlap, then two separate manuscripts are, almost certainly, required. On the other hand, many fragments with no overlaps and no contiguous edges with the other fragments, have been assigned to specific larger documents. The techniques used in making these assignments are not infallible, and it is always possible that future scholarship and/or investigative techniques will require reassignment of some fragments.

Manuscripts or fragments, now numbered separately, may turn out to be parts of other numbered manuscripts. While most of the details of this jigsaw puzzle were worked out long ago, it is still possible that some of the unidentified individual fragments, currently carrying their own unique manuscript designations, may yet be identified and, possibly, incorporated into other manuscripts. This would possibly create additional gaps in the series numbering. It is also possible that a fragment now assigned to one document might turn out to be part of another copy of the same text or even part of an unrelated text. Such a fragment could, in the latter case, require its own new number.

The biblical and non-biblical texts are intermixed here in the order of their current numerical series designations. In general, the biblical manuscripts have lower numbers than the non-biblical manuscripts, but not always. I have, after the example of F. García Martínez, appended to the numerical series designation, the official abbreviation (in parentheses), and one or more commonly used titles. Manuscripts with non-numerical official designations (such as the first seven manuscripts) appear at the beginning of the list for the appropriate cave (Cave 1 for those first seven manuscripts).

Some famous or notorious manuscripts have become better known by their official abbreviations or one of the common names than by their numerical series designation. These I have also chosen to list at the beginning of the entries for the appropriate caves. Note that those entries appear again in their numerical sequence in the list of the cave’s manuscripts ONLY to refer you back to the beginning of the list. The intent is that each individual manuscript should have only one entry in the list. Putting well known named manuscripts at the beginning of each Cave’s list merely speeds up the process of checking on certain specific manuscript references.

In a few special cases, one manuscript consumes two numerical series designations. This occurred because parts of the manuscript ended up in Israel and part of it ended up in the Rockefeller Museum basement in East Jerusalem. Given the temper of the times and of some of the individuals involved, there was no way to reunite the separate parts. Today, it should be possible, but there are no signs that such reunions have actually occurred under the auspices of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Two non-Qumran manuscripts are also listed here because they are so closely related to the various copies of the Damascus Document (4Q D) discovered in Cave 4; fragments of this document have also been discovered in other caves at Qumran. These two non-Qumran manuscripts are copies of the Damascus Document discovered in the Cairo Genizah (the CD-A and CD-B documents). These manuscripts along with copies from Qumran Cave 4 are all listed together at the beginning of the Cave 4 list. Other fragments, presumably from separate copies, of the Damascus Document found in other caves are also listed at the beginning of the lists for their appropriate caves.

An original DJD reference, or an alternate reference, for each manuscript is usually provided, along with a brief description or identification of its contents, as currently understood. See F. García Martínez, R. Eisenman and M. Wise, and Geza Vermes for more complete sets of references and descriptions.

The biblical texts have not, so far as I know, ever been considered controversial. They were to a large extent translated and published early. They are of interest to many biblical scholars, not least because they offer insights into the evolution of Old Testament scriptures. Copying errors, misunderstandings, redactions, insertions (glosses), and biblical commentaries, among other effects, have all served to modify these texts over time. These changes are of undoubted interest to scholars whose research focuses the evolution of such biblical texts prior to the time they were edited into their final forms in the modern Christian and Jewish Canons. This work has a long history, and unlike scholars interested in the non-biblical texts, biblical scholars were not unduly hindered in their investigations of the Dead Sea Scrolls by the inactions of some of the original editors.

Until recently most of the non-biblical texts have been only partially published or not published at all. These texts are potentially more interesting than the biblical texts, in part, because they are among the lost religious texts of the intertestamental period. What is even more interesting, they were lost without leaving us any trace that they ever existed; at least, not until the late 1940’s. As the Damascus Document discoveries in the Cairo Genizah demonstrate, however, some of these may have been lost more recently than might be suspected. Still, it is always most interesting to stumble across the totally unexpected. The newly won availability of these texts now offers scholars an opportunity to start digging for the surprises.

English translations of most of the non-biblical texts from Qumran have recently become available in economical paperback editions suitable for general readership. The paperback edition containing the earliest widely available English translation(s) for individual scrolls is indicated using superscripts to provide the source and page numbers as follows:

0 Too small to be worth translating according to F. García Martínez

1 [pp] F. García Martínez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated. — The Qumran Texts in English, 2nd ed., trans. W. G. E. Watson, (Leiden; E. J. Brill, 1995).

(Originally published in Spanish as Textos de Qumrán (Madrid; Editorial Trotta SA, 1992). The first English language edition "with corrections and additions" was (Leiden; E. J. Brill, 1994). The first paperback edition of the English translation was published jointly in 1996 by E. J. Brill, Leiden, and Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan.)

(This is the most extensive translation of the 270 most important non-biblical texts available into English. Its major shortcoming is the limited amount of discussion provided for the texts; although this is scheduled to be rectified in a companion volume due out soon, we are assured.)

(I have corrected a small number of typographical errors while examining specific entries from the otherwise excellent list of manuscripts provided at the end of this work. These have been primarily numerical errors in page or volume numbers and, occasionally, in the series number of a specific manuscript. I expect that these will be corrected in a later edition, but in the interim, the corrected entries are available here . These small errors do not detract in any way from the overall stunning impact of the translations themselves.)

2 [pp] R. Eisenman and M. Wise, Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered, (New York; Penguin, 1993).

(Translations in this volume are limited to a subset of 50 of the non-biblical texts from Cave 4. These texts have been reassembled independently, and in some cases, uniquely. In addition to the translations, this volume also includes discussions of all the translated texts. Multiple manuscripts were used by Professor Wise, whenever possible, to reconstruct as much of the original text as possible. There is no way, however, to be sure that all the separate manuscripts originally contained identical text. The composite published text may, therefore, differ in some respects from every one of the manuscript copies from which it was reconstructed. Professor Eisenman’s contention that the original scroll owners were early Christians is not widely accepted by most scroll scholars. This is not, however, a relevant issue for those who are only or mainly interested in the translations, themselves. Professor Wise conducted extensive research to reassemble as much of the original text as possible from the, sometimes numerous, manuscripts that include parts of the text he was trying to translate and analyze. This is an excellent introduction to the non-biblical scrolls for a non-specialist. Even Eisenman and Wise don’t agree on what they mean. That highlights, for me, that this is a healthy and vibrant area of continuing scholarly interest and investigation. Disagreement is what everyone expected once the texts became generally available to scholars.)

3 [pp] Geza Vermes, Dead Sea Scrolls in English. — Revised and Extended Fourth Edition, (London; Penguin, 1995).

(Translations in this volume are limited to a subset of 70 of the non-biblical texts from several caves. The first edition of this volume goes back to 1962. It thus provided the first generally available translations from outside the official international editorial group.)

(It has a most instructive introductory section including a history of the entire scroll fiasco and interesting reportage about most of the principle players. It is not as forthcoming about Professor Vermes own role in most of that history, but other sources can be consulted for those details. It is worth having just for the introduction.)

(It also has some commentary about the texts that it covers, but this is hardly extensive. It includes seemingly all of the largest extant manuscripts and as such is a worthy acquisition. It is also interesting to compare, where possible, these translations with those of F. García Martínez. The later it should be remembered, were first translated into Spanish and then into English by Wilfred G. E, Watson. This might be expected to produce some interesting differences in the final texts.)


The Qumran Manuscript Inventory — Caves 1 — 11

Cave One (1Q) 1Q ap Gen, 1Q Hab, 1Q H, 1Q Isa, 1Q Isb, 1Q M, 1Q S, 1Q 1 — 1Q 27 and 1Q 28a — 1Q 72

Cave Two (2Q) 2Q 1 — 2Q 33

Cave Three (3Q) Copper Scroll and 3Q 1 — 3Q 14

Cave Four (4Q)

Cave Five (5Q) 5Q 1 — 5Q 25

Cave Six (6Q) 6Q 1 — 6Q 4 and 6Q 6 — 6Q 31

Cave Seven (7Q) 7Q 1 — 7Q 19

Cave Eight (8Q) 8Q 1 — 8Q 5

Cave Nine (9Q) A single unidentified papyrus fragment

Cave Ten (10Q) A single ostracon

Cave Eleven (11Q) 11Q 1 — 11Q 25


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 1

1Q ap Gen ar (1Q 20) 1Q Genesis Apocryphon ¤,1 [230—237]

N. Avigad and Y. Yadin, A Genesis Apocryphon. A Scroll from the Wilderness of Judaea (Magnes Press-Heikhal hasefer, Jerusalem 1956). Rewritten version of Genesis in Aramaic.

One of the original group of seven manuscripts retrieved by the Tacâmireh. 1Q ap Gen ar is one of the four acquired by Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, the archimandrite of the Syrian-Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark in Jerusalem. Mar Athanasius eventually sold (as late as 1954) all four of his manuscripts to Yigael Yadin, the son of Prof. E. L. Sukenik, acting through an intermediary, for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All seven of the original manuscripts eventually ended up in the special museum built for them in Jerusalem: The Shrine of the Book.

1Q H (1Q Ha) 1Q Hymns, The Hymns Scroll, Hôdayôt ¤,1 [317—361]

cols. 1—18, frags. 1—66, pls 35—58. Three more fragments were published by E. Puech, RQ 13 (1988) 58—88, pl. III, who also suggested rearranging and renumbering the fragments, JJS 39 (1988) 38—55.

One of the original group of seven manuscripts retrieved by the Tacâmireh. 1Q H is one of the three acquired by Prof. E. L. Sukenik in 1947 for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All seven of the original manuscripts eventually ended up in the special museum built for them in Jerusalem: The Shrine of the Book.

1Q pHab 1Q Habakkuk Pesher ¤,1 [197—202]

M. Burrows (ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls of St. Mark’s Monastery, (The American Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven 1950), vol. I, pls. LV—LXI. Commentary on Habakkuk 1:2-17; 2:1-20.

One of the original group of seven manuscripts retrieved by the Tacâmireh. 1Q pHab is one of the four acquired by Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, the archimandrite of the Syrian-Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark in Jerusalem. Mar Athanasius eventually sold (as late as 1954) all four of his manuscripts to Yigael Yadin, the son of Prof. E. L. Sukenik, acting through an intermediary, for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All seven of the original manuscripts eventually ended up in the special museum built for them in Jerusalem: The Shrine of the Book.

1Q Isa 1Q Isaiaha b

M. Burrows (ed.) with the assistance of J. C. Trever and W. H. Brownlee, The Dead Sea Scrolls of St. Mark’s Monastery, vol. I, pls. I—LIV. Almost complete copy of Isaiah with some gaps along the bottom edge.

One of the original group of seven manuscripts retrieved by the Tacâmireh. 1Q Isa is one of the four acquired by Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, the archimandrite of the Syrian-Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark in Jerusalem. Mar Athanasius eventually sold (as late as 1954) all four of his manuscripts to Yigael Yadin, the son of Prof. E. L. Sukenic, acting through an intermediary, for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All seven of the original manuscripts eventually ended up in the special museum built for them in Jerusalem: The Shrine of the Book.

1Q Isb 1Q Isaiahb b

E. L. Sukenik, ’Osar ham-megillôt hag-genûzôt she-bîdê ha-’ûnibersitah ha-cibrit (Bialik Foundation. — The Hebrew University [The Magnes Press. — The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 1955]); pls. 1—15. Another long and fragmented copy of Isaiah.

One of the original group of seven manuscripts retrieved by the Tacâmireh. 1Q Isb is one of the three acquired by Prof. E. L. Sukenik in 1947 for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All seven of the original manuscripts eventually ended up in the special museum built for them in Jerusalem: The Shrine of the Book.

1Q M 1Q War Scroll ¤,1 [95—115]

E. L. Sukenik, The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University, pp. 1—19, pls. 16—34.47. Rule of the War of the Children of Light Against the Children of Darkness.

One of the original group of seven manuscripts retrieved by the Tacâmireh. 1Q M is one of the three acquired by Prof. E. L. Sukenik in 1947 for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All seven of the original manuscripts eventually ended up in the special museum built for them in Jerusalem: The Shrine of the Book.

1Q 33 (1Q M) 1Q War Scroll ¤,1 [113—115]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 135—136, pl. XXXI. Two fragments of the above listed MS of the War Scroll, 1Q M published by Sukenik. These two fragments retain a separate identity only because they were discovered by separate groups and stored separately for five decades and have not, yet, been physically reunited with the larger part of the manuscript.

1Q S (1Q S and rarely, if ever, 1Q 28) 1Q Rule of the Community, Community Rule, The ‘Son of God’ Text, and, occasionally still, The Manual of Discipline ¤,1 [3—19]

Published in M. Burrows (ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls of St. Mark’s Monastery, (The American Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven 1950), vol. II/2, (Manual of Discipline = 1Q S). There is no II/1.

This manuscript contains a description of a sectarian group whose beliefs and practices resembled those of an ancient pacifist sect known as the Essenes, as noted by Eliezer Sukenik of Hebrew University in 1948. When this cave was reexplored in 1949 fragments of many other scrolls were found including what seemed to be an appendage to this same Essene-like work. In the first century CE Pliny the Elder located a group of Essenes on the western shore of the Dead Sea somewhere above En Gedi. This congruence, along with the seemingly obvious connection between the pottery found in the caves and in the nearby ruins, are what first lead de Vaux to preopose the hypothesis that the entire library and Qumran itself were products of the Essenes.

One of the original group of seven manuscripts retrieved by the Tacâmireh. 1Q S is one of the four acquired by Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, the Archimandrite of the Syrian-Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark in Jerusalem. Mar Athanasius eventually sold (as late as 1954) all four of his manuscripts to Yigael Yadin, the son of Prof. E. L. Sukenic, acting through an intermediary, for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All seven of the original manuscripts eventually ended up in the special museum built for them in Jerusalem: The Shrine of the Book.

1Q Sa and 1Q Sb (1Q Sa, 1Q Sb and rarely, if ever, 1Q 28a and 1Q 28b) 1Q Rule of the Community, Community Rule, The secterian Rule of the Community, The ‘Son of God’ Text, and, occasionally still, The Manual of Discipline ¤,1 [3—19]

Adjuncts to the Rule of the Community (1Q S), published in DJD I as 1Q 28a and 1Q 28b.

M. Burrows (ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls of St. Mark’s Monastery, vol. II, fasc. 2: The Manual of Discipline (The American Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven 1951). Community Rule, cols I—XI. 1Q 28a and 1Q 28b are usually assumed to be appendices to 1Q S. They were discovered during subsequent digs in cave 1 conducted by Lankester Harding and Roland De Vaux several years after the first seven manuscripts were discovered there. By that time the cave had obviously been ‘excavated’ both by the bedouin and by the monks of Syrian monastery of St Mark, or their agents.

1Q 1 (1Q Gen) 1Q Genesis b

D. Barthélemy, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert I (DJD I) (Oxford 1955), 49—50, pl. VIII. Fragmentary remains of Genesis.

1Q 2 (1Q Exod) 1Q Exodus b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 50—51, pl. VIII. Fragmentary remains of Exodus.

1Q 3 (1Q palaeoLev) 1Q Leviticus b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 51—54, pls. VIII—IX. Barthélemy accepts the possibility that these fragments are parts of three or four separate MSS, to which fragments 1—15, 16—21, 22—23, and 24 respectively belong. M. D. McLean, The Use and Development of Palaeo-Hebrew in the Hellenistic and Roman Period (Thesis, Harvard 1982), 41—42, distinguishes three separate MSS:

1Q palaeoLeva: fragments 1—8, 10—15;

1Q palaeoLevb: fragments 22—23;

1Q palaeoNum: fragments 16—21.

Fragmentary remains of Leviticus in palaeo-Hebrew script.

1Q 4 (1Q Deuta) 1Q Deuteronomya b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 54—57, pl. IX. Fragmentary remains of Deuteronomy.

1Q 5 (1Q Deutb) 1Q Deuteronomyb b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 57—62, pl. X. Another fragmentary copy of Deuteronomy.

1Q 6 (1Q Jud) 1Q Judges b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 62—64, pl. XI. Fragmentary remains of Judges.

1Q 7 (1Q Sam) 1Q Samuel b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 64—65, pl. XI. Fragmentary remains of 1 and 2 Samuel.

1Q 8 (1Q Isb) 1Q Isaiahb b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 66—68, pl. XII. Part of the 1Q Isb manuscript of Isaiah, published by Sukenik, 1Q Isaiahb. These separate parts of the same manuscript retain a separate identities only because they were discovered by separate groups and stored separately for five decades and have not, yet, been physically reunited into one large manuscript.

1Q 9 (1Q Ezek) 1Q Ezekiel b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 68—69, pl. XII. One identified fragment of Ezekiel and another, unidentified.

1Q 10 (1Q Psa) 1Q Psalmsa b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 69—70, pl. XIII. Fragmentary copy of Psalms, with the divine name written in palaeo-Hebrew characters.

1Q 11 (1Q Psb) 1Q Psalmsb b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 71, pl. XIII. Another fragmentary copy of Psalms, with the divine name written in palaeo-Hebrew characters.

1Q 12 (1Q Psc) 1Q Psalmsc b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 71—72, pl. XIII. Remains of Psalm 44.

1Q 13 (1Q Phyl) 1Q Phylactery b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 72—76, fig. 10, pl. XIV. Remains of a phylactery which includes the text of the decalogue.

1Q 14 (1Q pMic) 1Q Micah Pesher ¤,1 [193—194]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 77—80, pl. XV. Remains of a commentary on Mic 1:2-5.5-7.8-9; 4:13(?);6:14-16; 7:6(?).8-9(?).17.

1Q 15 (1Q pZeph) 1Q Zephaniah Pesher ¤,1 [202]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 80, pl. XV. Remains of a commentary on Zeph 1:18-2:2.

1Q 16 (1Q pPs) 1Q Psalms Pesher ¤,1 [206]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 81—82, pl. XV. Remains of a commentary on Ps 57:1.4;Ps 68:12-13.26-27.30-31.

1Q 17 (1Q Juba) 1Q Jubileesa ¤,1 [245]

D. J. T. Milik, DJD I, 82—83, pl. XVI. Copy of the Book of Jubilees. Remains of Jub 27:19-21.

1Q 18 (1Q Jubb) 1Q Jubileesb ¤,1 [245]

D. J. T. Milik, DJD I, 83—84, pl. XVI. Copy of the Book of Jubilees. Remains of Jub 35:8-10 and unidentified fragments.

1Q 19 (1Q Noah) 1Q Noah ¤,1 [263]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 84—86, pl. XVI. Possibly a copy of the lost Book of Noah, related to the Book of Enoch.

1Q 19bis 1Q Noah ¤,1 [263]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 152. Fragment 2 of the preceding MS.

1Q 20 (1Q ap Gen ar) 1Q Genesis Apocryphon ¤,1 [230]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 86—87, pl. XVII. 8 fragments of the foregoing 1Q ap Gen ar, published as ‘Apocalypse de Lamech’.

1Q 21 (1Q T Levi ar) 1Q Aramaic Levi ¤,1 [266]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 87—91, pl. XVII. Remains of an Aramaic work related to the Aramaic Testament of Levi from the Cairo Genizah, and to the Greek Testament of Levi, which forms part of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.

1Q 22 (1Q DM) 1Q Words of Moses ¤,1 [276—277]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 91—97, pl. XVIII—XIX. Remains of a Hebrew work, referred to as ‘Words of Moses’ (Dibrê Mosheh).

1Q 23 (1Q En Giants ara) 1Q Book of Giantsa ¤,1 [260]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 97—98, pl. XIX. Published as remains of an Aramaic apocryphon, they were later identified by Milik as a copy of the Book of Giants in Milik, Books, 301—302.

1Q 24 (1Q En Giants arb) 1Q Book of Giantsb ¤,0

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 99, pl. XX. Aramaic apocryphon; according to Milik, Books, 309, possibly another copy of the Book of Giants.

1Q 25 (1Q Apocryphal prophecy¤,0

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 100—101, pl. XX. Remains of an apocryphal prophecy; (?) in Hebrew.

1Q 26 (1Q Wisdom Apocryphon¤,0

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 101—102, pl. XX. Remains of an apocryphal work in Hebrew. According to P. W. Skehan there are another four copies of the same work in 4 Q.

1Q 27 (1Q Myst) 1Q Mysteries ¤,1 [399—400]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 102—107, pls. XXI—XXII. ‘Book of the Mysteries’, a pseudepigraphical prophecy.

1Q 28a (1Q Sa) 1Q Rule of the Congregation ¤,1 [126—128]

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 108—118, pls. XXIII—XXIV. Appendix to the Community Rule, 1Q S, eschatological in content.

1Q 28b (1Q Sb) 1Q Rule of the Blessings ¤,1 [432—433]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 118—130, pls. XXV—XXIX. Collection of various blessings preserved as an appendix to the Community Rule, 1Q S, and the Rule of the Congregation, 1Q Sa.

1Q 29 1Q Liturgy of the Three Tongues of Fire ¤,1 [277—278]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 130—132, pl. XXX. Remains of a work, liturgical in character, called the Liturgy of the ‘three tongues of fire’.

1Q 30 1Q Liturgical Text (?) ¤,1 [438]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 132—133, pl. XXX. Fragment of indeterminate character.

1Q 31 1Q Liturgical Text (?) ¤,1 [438]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 132—133, pl. XXX. Fragment of indeterminate character.

1Q 32 (1Q JN ar) 1Q New Jerusalem ¤,0

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 134—135, pls. XXXI. Minute remains of the Aramaic work: ‘Description of the New Jerusalem’.

1Q 34 (1Q Pr Fêtes) 1Q Festival Prayers ¤,1 [411]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 136, pl. XXXI. Collection of prayers for the various feasts of the liturgical year. Two (4Q 508—509) or three (4Q 507) other copies of this work have been preserved.

1Q 34bis 1Q Festival Prayers ¤,1 [411]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 152—155, pl. XXXI. Fragments of the foregoing MS, with remains of the prayers for the feasts of the New Year, Yom Kippur and Tabernacles (?).

1Q 35 (1Q Hb) 1Q Hymnsb ¤,1 [361—362]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 136—138, pl. XXI. Remains of a second copy of the Hodayot (1Q Ha).

1Q 36 1Q Hymnic Compositions (?) ¤,0

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 138—141, pl. XXXII. Remains of an unspecified hymn.

1Q 37 1Q Hymnic Compositions (?) ¤,1 [438]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 141, pl. XXXIII. Remains of an unspecified hymn.

1Q 38 1Q Hymnic Compositions (?) ¤,1 [438]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 142, pl. XXXIII. Remains of an unspecified hymn.

1Q 39 1Q Hymnic Compositions (?) ¤,1 [438]

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 143, pl. XXXIII. Remains of an unspecified hymn.

1Q 40—69 1Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 144—148, pls. XXXIII—XXXIV. Unidentified Hebrew and Aramaic fragments.

1Q 70 1Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

J. T. Milik, DJD I, 148—149, pl. XXXVII. Unidentified fragments of papyri.

1Q 71 (1Q Dana) 1Q Daniela b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 150—151. A single fragment with two columns of Daniel.

1Q 72 (1Q Danb) 1Q Danielb; b

D. Barthélemy, DJD I, 150—151. Another fragmentary copy of Daniel.


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 2

2Q 1 (2Q Gen) 2Q Genesis b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 48—49, pl. X. Remains of a copy of Genesis.

2Q 2 (2Q Exoda) 2Q Exodusa b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 49—52, pl. X. Remains of a copy of Exod.

2Q 3 (2Q Exodb) 2Q Exodusb b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 52—55, pl. XI. Remains of another copy of Exodus, with the divine name written in palaeo-Hebrew characters and in which Exod 34:10 comes immediately after Exod 19:9.

2Q 4 (2Q Exodc) 2Q Exodusc b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 56, pl. XII. A single fragment of possibly another copy of Exodus.

2Q 5 (2Q palaeoLev) 2Q Leviticus b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 56—57, pl. XII. A single fragment of Leviticus, written in palaeo-Hebrew characters.

2Q 6 (2Q Numba) 2Q Numbersa b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 57—58, pl. XII. Two fragments with remains of a copy of Numbers.

2Q 7 (2Q Numbb) 2Q Numbersb b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 58—59, pl. XII. A fragment of another copy of Numbers.

2Q 8 (2Q Numbc) 2Q Numbersc b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 59, pl. XII. A fragment with remains of possibly another copy of Numbers.

2Q 9 (2Q Numbd) 2Q Numbersd (?) b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 59—60, pl. XII. A fragment with remains of possibly another copy of Numbers.

2Q 10 (2Q Deuta) 2Q Deuteronomya b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 60—61, pl. XII. A fragment with remains of Deut 1.

2Q 11 (2Q Deutb) 2Q Deuteronomyb b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 60—61, pl. XII. A fragment with remains of possibly another copy of Deuteronomy.

2Q 12 (2Q Deutc) 2Q Deuteronomyc b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 61—62, pl. XII. A fragment with remains of Deut 10.

2Q 13 (2Q Jer) 2Q Jeremiah b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 62—69, pl. XIII. Remains of a copy of Jeremiah.

2Q 14 (2Q Ps) 2Q Psalms b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 69—71, pl. XIII. Remains of Pss 103 and 104, written partly in red ink.

2Q 15 (2Q Job) 2Q Job b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 71, pl. XIII. A fragment with remains of Job 3.

2Q 16 (2Q Rutha) 2Q Rutha b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 71—74, pl. XIV. Remains of a copy of Ruth.

2Q 17 (2Q Ruthb) 2Q Ruthb b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 74—75, pl. XV. Two fragments, one unidentified, of another copy of Ruth.

2Q 18 (2Q Sir) 2Q BenSira b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 75—77, pl. XV. Remains of chap. 6 of Ecclesiasticus (or Ben Sira) in Hebrew.

2Q 19 (2Q Juba) 2Q Jubileesa ¤,1 [244]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 77—78, pl. XV. A single fragment of the Book of Jubilees, with remains of Jub 23:7-8.

2Q 20 (2Q Jubb) 2Q Jubileesb ¤,1 [245]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 78—79, pl. XV. Three fragments of another copy of the Book of Jubilees. Only one has been identified.

2Q 21 (2Q ap Moses) 2Q Apocryphon of Moses ¤,1 [281]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 79—81, pl. XV. Remains of a dialogue of Moses with God.

2Q 22 (2Q ap David?) 2Q Apocryphon of David? ¤,1 [224]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 81—82, pl. XV. Remains of an ‘Apocryphon of David’ (?) or of another ‘Apocryphon of Moses’, which Baillet completes with another copy from Cave 4, 4Q 373.

2Q 23 (2Q ap Proph) 2Q Apocryphal prophecy ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 82—84, pl. XV. Remains of an ‘Apocryphal Prophecy’.

2Q 24 (2Q NJ ar) 2Q New Jerusalem ¤,1 [129]

M. Baillet, RB 62 (1955) 225—245, pls. II—III; M. Baillet, DJD III, 84—89, pl. XV. Remains of an Aramaic work, ‘Description of the New Jerusalem’.

2Q 25 2Q Juridical text ¤,1 [86]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 90, pl. XVI. Remains of an halakhic work.

2Q 26 (2Q En Giants ar) 2Q Book of Giants ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 90—91. A single fragment in Aramaic, published as a fragment of a ritual (?) and later identified by Milik, Books, 334, as another fragment of the Book of Giants.

2Q 27—33 2Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 91—93, pl. XVII. Fragments of unidentified works.


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 3

3Q Copper Scroll (3Q 15¤,1 [461—463]

J. M. Allegro, The Treasures of the Copper Scroll (London 1960); J. T. Milik, DJD III, 211—302, pls. XLVIII—LXXI. Copper Scroll. The orginal Copper Scroll is stored in Amman, Jordan. It has begun to deteriorate even though carefully stored there. Efforts are underway to preserve it.

3Q 1 (3Q Ez) 3Q Ezekiel b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 94, pl. XVIII. Fragments with remains of Ez 16.

3Q 2 (3Q Ps) 3Q Psalms b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 94, pl. XVIII. Fragments with remains of Ps 2.

3Q 3 (3Q Lam) 3Q Lamentations b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 95, pl. XVIII. Remains of a copy of Lamentations with the divine name written in palaeo-Hebrew characters.

3Q 4 (3Q pIsa) 3Q Isaiah Pesher ¤,1 [185]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 95—96, pl. XVIII. Remains of a pesher on Isaiah.

3Q 5 (3Q Jub) 3Q Jubilees ¤,1 [244]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 96—98, pl. XVIII. Three of the seven fragments in this manuscript, originally published as an ‘Apocryphal prophecy’, have been identified as a copy of Jubilees.

3Q 6 3Q Hymn ¤,1 [401]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 98, pl. XVIII. Hymn of praise.

3Q 7 (3Q T Juda?) 3Q Testament of Judah(?) ¤,1 [265]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 99, pl. XVIII. Later identified by J. T. Milik as a Hebrew version of the Aramaic Testament of Judah, it was originally published as ‘Apocryphon which mentions the angel of the presence’.

3Q 8 3Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 100, pls. XIX. ‘Text which mentions an angel of peace’.

3Q 9 3Q Sectarian text(?) ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 100—101, pls. XIX.

3Q 10—14 3Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 101—105, pls. XIX. Unidentified texts.


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 4

4Q 1 (4Q Gen-Exoda) 4Q Genesis-Exodusa b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 1—30, pls. I—V. Copy which contains combined remains of Genesis and Exodus.

4Q 2 (4Q Genb) 4Q Genesisb b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 31—38, pls. VI—VIII. Copy of Gn text identical to MT. Origin Uncertain.

4Q 3 (4Q Genc) 4Q Genesisc b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 39—42, pl. IX. Remains of Gen 40—41.

4Q 4 (4Q Gend) 4Q Genesisd b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 43—45, pl. IX. A single fragment with remains of Gn 1.

4Q 5 (4Q Gene) 4Q Genesise b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 47—52, pl. X. Copy of Gn from a textual type similar to MT and the Samaritan text.

4Q 6 (4Q Genf) 4Q Genesisf b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 53—55, pl. XI. Remains of one column with part of Gn 48.

4Q 7 (4Q Geng) 4Q Genesisg b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 57—60, pl. XII. Two fragments of Gn 1—2.

4Q 8 (4Q Genh1) 4Q Genesish1 b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 61—62, pl. XII. A fragment with remains of Gn 1:8-10. The siglum 4Q Genh has been adopted for four different manuscripts related to the book of Genesis, each of which is preserved in only one small fragment.

4Q 8a (4Q Genh2) 4Q Genesish2 b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 62, pl. XII. A fragment with remains of Gn 2:17-18.

4Q 8b (4Q Genh-para) 4Q Genesish-para b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 62—63, pl. XII. A paraphrasis of Gn 12:4-5.

4Q 8c (4Q Genh-title) 4Q Genesish-title b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 63—64, pl. XII. The title of a Genesis manuscript written on the recto of a page de garde.

4Q 9 (4Q Genj) 4Q Genesisj b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 65—73, pl. XIII. Copy of Gn of a textual type close to the Samaritan text.

4Q 10 (4Q Genk) 4Q Genesisk b

J. R. Davila, DJD XII, 75—78, pl. XIII. Small fragments with remains of Gn 1—3.

4Q 11 (4Q palaeoGen-Exodl) 4Q Genesis-Exodusl b

P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, J. E. Sanderson, DJD IX, 17—50, pls. I—VI. A manuscript in palaeo-Hebrew script with remains of Gen 50:26 and Exod 1—36.

4Q 12 (4Q palaeoGenm) 4Q Genesism b

P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, J. E. Sanderson, DJD IX, 51—52, pl. VI. A fragment on Gn 26 in palaeo-Hebrew script.

4Q Genn 4Q Genesisn b

E. Puech, RQ 16/64 (1995) 637—704 (?). Two very small fragments with possible remains of Gn 34:7-10 and Gn 50:3.

4Q 13 (4Q Exodb) 4Q Exodusb b

F. M. Cross, DJD XII, 79—95, pls. XIV—XV. Six fragments with remains of Exod 1—5.

4Q 14 (4Q Exodc) 4Q Exodusc b

J. E. Sanderson, DJD XII, 97—125, pls. XVI—XX. Thirty-six (36) fragments with remains of Exod 7—18.

4Q 15 (4Q Exodd) 4Q Exodusd b

J. E. Sanderson, DJD XII, 127—128, pl. XXI. A single fragment with remains of Exod 13:15-17 followed directly by Exod 15:1.

4Q 16 (4Q Exode) 4Q Exoduse b

J. E. Sanderson, DJD XII, 129—131, pl. XXI. A single fragment with remains of Exod 13:3-5.

4Q 17 (4Q Exod-Levf) 4Q Exodus-Leviticusf b

F. M. Cross, DJD XII, 133—144, pls. XXII. It might be most ancient of the biblical manuscripts to come from Qumran, copied towards 250 BC. Its contents are practically identical to MT. Remains of Exod 38—Lev 2.

4Q 18 (4Q Exodgb

J. E. Sanderson, DJD XII, 145—146, pl. XXI. A single fragment with remains of Exod 14:21-27.

4Q 19 (4Q Exodhb

J. E. Sanderson, DJD XII, 147—148, pl. XXII. A single fragment with remains of Exod 6:3-6.

4Q 20 (4Q Exodjb

J. E. Sanderson, DJD XII, 149—150, pl. XXI. Minute fragments with remains of Exod 7—8.

4Q 21 (4Q Exodkb

J. E. Sanderson, DJD XII, 151, pl. XXI. A single fragment with remains of Exod 36:9-10.

4Q 22 (4Q palaeoExodmb

P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, J. E. Sanderson, DJD IX, 51—130, pls. VII—XXXIII. Another lengthy copy of Exod in palaeo-Hebrew characters, Samaritan in type.

4Q 23 (4Q Lev-Numa) 4Q Leviticus-Numbersa b

E. Ulrich, DJD XII, 153—176, pls. XXIII—XXX. Many fragments of a MS which contains remains of Lev and Num.

4Q 24 (4Q Levb) 4Q Leviticusb b

E. Ulrich, DJD XII, 177—187, pls. XXI—XXXIV. Thirty (30) fragments of another copy of Lev, with remains of Lev 1—3 and Lev 21—25.

4Q 25 (4Q Levc) 4Q Leviticusc b

E. Tov, DJD XII, 189—192, pl. XXXV. Nine (9) fragments of another copy of Lev with remains of Lev 1—8.

4Q 26 (4Q Levd) 4Q Leviticusd b

E. Tov, DJD XII, 193—195, pl. XXXVI. Another copy of Lev in a bad state of preservation with remains of Lev 14—17.

4Q 26a (4Q Leve) 4Q Leviticuse b

E. Tov, DJD XII, 197—201, pl. XXXVII. Nine (9) small fragments with remains of Lev 3 and Lev 19—22.

4Q 26b (4Q Levg) 4Q Leviticusg b

E. Tov, DJD XII, 203—204, pl. XXXVIII. A single fragment with remains of Lev 7:19-26, containing the tetragrammaton in palaeo-Hebrew script.

4Q 27 (4Q Numb) 4Q Numbersb b

N. R. Jastram, DJD XII, 205—267, pls. XXXVIII—XLIX. Lengthy copy, of an expansionist type, of Num, of which remains of 27 columns have been preserved.

4Q 28 (4Q Deuta) 4Q Deuteronomya b

S. A. White, A critical Edition of Seven Deuteronomy Manuscripts, Diss Harvard 1988, 8—18. A fragment with remains of Deut 23—24.

4Q 29 (4Q Deutb) 4Q Deuteronomyb b

J. A. Duncon, A Critical Edition of Deuteronomy Manuscripts from Qumran Cave IV: 4Q Dtb, 4Q Dte, 4Q Dth, 4Q Dtj, 4Q Dtl, Diss. Harvard 1989, 9—31. Four fragments with remains of Deut 29—32.

4Q 30 (4Q Deutc) 4Q Deuteronomyc b

S. A. White, A critical Edition of Seven Deuteronomy Manuscripts, Diss Harvard 1988, 19—132. Lengthy copy of Deut, of a textual type related to LXX.

4Q 31 (4Q Deutd) 4Q Dueteronomyd b

S. A. White, A critical Edition of Seven Deuteronomy Manuscripts, Diss Harvard 1988, 133—154. A fragment with remains of Deut 2—3.

4Q 32 (4Q Deute) 4Q Deuteronomye b

J. A. Duncon, A Critical Edition of Deuteronomy Manuscripts from Qumran Cave IV: 4QDtb, 4QDte, 4QDth, 4QDtj, 4QDtl, Diss. Harvard 1989, 32—49. Three main fragments containing remains of Deut 7—8.

4Q 33 (4Q Deutf) 4Q Deuteronomyf b

S. A. White, A critical Edition of Seven Deuteronomy Manuscripts, Diss Harvard 1988, 155—214. ‘Proto-rabbinic’ copy of Deut.

4Q 34 (4Q Deutg) 4Q Deuteronomyg b

S. A. White, A critical Edition of Seven Deuteronomy Manuscripts, Diss Harvard 1988, 215—240. Copy of Deut of a masoretic type.

4Q 35 (4Q Deuth) 4Q Deuteronomyh b

J. A. Duncon, A Critical Edition of Deuteronomy Manuscripts from Qumran Cave IV: 4QDtb, 4QDte, 4QDth, 4QDtj, 4QDtl, Diss. Harvard 1989, 50—77. Copy of Deut of a septuagintal type, with remains of Deut 1—2, Deut 31 and Deut 33.

4Q 36 (4Q Deuti) 4Q Deuteronomyi b

S. A. White, A critical Edition of Seven Deuteronomy Manuscripts, Diss Harvard 1988, 241—262. Another copy of Deut.

4Q 37 (4Q Deutj) 4Q Deuteronomyj b

J. A. Duncon, A Critical Edition of Deuteronomy Manuscripts from Qumran Cave IV: 4QDtb, 4QDte, 4QDth, 4QDtj, 4QDtl, Diss. Harvard 1989, 78—114. The manuscript contains various passages from Deut and Exod 12:43—13:5, which follows Deut 11:21.

4Q 38 (4Q Deutk) 4Q Deuteronomyk b

J. A. Duncon, A Critical Edition of Deuteronomy Manuscripts from Qumran Cave IV: 4QDtb, 4QDte, 4QDth, 4QDtj, 4QDtl, Diss. Harvard 1989, 115—154. Eleven (11) fragments which may could belong to two different copies of Deut. The preserved remains come from Deut 5.11.19-20.23.25-26.32.

4Q 39 (4Q Deutl) 4Q Deuteronomyl b

J. A. Duncon, A Critical Edition of Deuteronomy Manuscripts from Qumran Cave IV: 4QDtb, 4QDte, 4QDth, 4QDtj, 4QDtl, Diss. Harvard 1989, 155—168. Eight (8) tiny-sized fragments of another copy of Deut.

4Q 40 (4Q Deutm) 4Q Deuteronomym b

Three fragments with remains of Deut 3 and Deut 7, written with plene spelling.

4Q 41 (4Q Deutn) 4Q Deuteronomyn b

F. M. Cross, Scrolls from the Wilderness of the Dead Sea, 20.31-32. The famous ‘All Souls Deuteronomy’, possibly a text with excerpts from Deut.

4Q 42 (4Q Deuto) 4Q Deuteronomyo b

Fifteen (15) tiny-sized fragments of another copy of Deut.

4Q 43 (4Q Deutp) 4Q Deuteronomyp b

Four (4) small fragments of another copy of Deut, with remains of Deut 5 and Deut 14.

4Q 44 (4Q Deutq) 4Q Deuteronomyq b

Remains of the ‘Song of Moses’.

4Q 45 (4Q palaeoDeutr) 4Q palaeoDeuteronomyr b

P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, J. E. Sanderson, DJD IX, 131—152, pls. XXXIV—XXXVI. Abundant fragments of another copy of Deut written in palaeo-Hebrew characters.

4Q 46 (4Q palaeoDeuts) 4Q palaeoDeuteronomys b

P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, J. E. Sanderson, DJD IX, 153—154, pl. XXXVII. A single fragment in palaeo-Hebrew of Deut 26.

4Q 47 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 48 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 49 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 50 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 51 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 52 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 53 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 54 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 55 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 56 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 57 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 58 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 59 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 60 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 61 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 62 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 63 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 64 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 65 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 66 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 67 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 68 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 69 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 69a (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 69b (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 70 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 71 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 71a (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 71b (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 72 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 73 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 74 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 75 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 76 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 77 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 78 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 79 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 80 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 81 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 82 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 83 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 84 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 85 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 86 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 87 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 88 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 89 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 90 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 91 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 92 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 93 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 94 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 95 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 96 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 97 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 98 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 98a (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 98b (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 98c (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 98d (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q Ps 89 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q Ps 122 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 99 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 100 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 101 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 102 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 103 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 104 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 105 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 106 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 107 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 108 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 109 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 110 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 111 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 112 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 113 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 114 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 115 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 116 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 117 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 118 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 119 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 120 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 121 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 122 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 123 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 124 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 125 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 126 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 127 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 128 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 129 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 130 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 131 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 132 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 133 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 134 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 135 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 136 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 137 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 138 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 139 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 140 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 141 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 142 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 143 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 144 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 145 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 146 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 147—148 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 149 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 150 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 151 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 152 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 153 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 154 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q 155 (4Qa) 4Qa b

J. R. Davila, DJD III, 1—30, pls. I—V.

4Q D — Damascus Document2

4Q 1862

x fragments in cryptic script (mixes a few words written in Greek and palaeo-Hebrew alphabets with those in ordinary square Hebrew in mirror writing; not the same code as that used in 4Q 298)

4Q 1962

Aramaic Tobit — 1 fragment —

4Q 213—2142

Aramaic Testament of Levi — 2 manuscripts in 6 fragments —

4Q 2152

Testament of Naphtali — 1 fragment —

4Q 2272

Pseudo-Jubilees — 2 fragments —

4Q 243—2452

Pseudo-Daniel — 1 fragment —

4Q 2462

The Son of God — 1 fragment — This fragment was acquired through Kando in 1958. Even though it has never been published, the contents of this scroll fragment have become known along with the rest of the scrolls in recent years. It appears to record the first instances of certain phrases thought to be unique to the Hellenistic New Testament writings originating outside Palestine. From this lone document, we now know that these phrases are part of Christianity’s original Jewish heritage. The specific phrases are Son of God, Most High and Son of the Most High. Despite the obvious importance of this text to both Jewish and Christian biblical scholars, J. T. Milik has still not published this text which was originally assigned to him.

4Q 251 — Halakhah A2

A Pleasing Fragrance — 7 fragments —

4Q 2522

A Genesis Florilegium — 1 fragment —

4Q 266 — The End of the Damascus Document: An Excommunication Text2

The Foundations of Righteousness — 1 fragment —

4Q 274 — Purity Laws Type A2

Mourning, Seminal Emissions, etc. — 3 fragments —

4Q 276—277 — Purity Laws Type B2

Laws of the Red Heifer — 2 manuscripts in 2 fragments —

4Q 285 — Nasi2

The Messianic Leader — 7 fragments —

Previous Discussion: None.

4Q 286—2872

The Chariots of Glory — 2 manuscripts in 6 fragments —

4Q 2982

Admonitions to the Sons of Dawn — 1 fragment in code (uses 23 more or less arbitrary symbols in a simple substitution code plus one null character, possibly a syntactic symbol that has no correspondence in Hebrew; not the same code as that used in 4Q 186) —

4Q 299—301 (4Q Book of Mysteries)

4Q 302a (4Q The Parable of the Bountiful Treee)

4Q 3182

Brontologion — 2 fragments —

4Q 319A — Otot2

Heavenly Concordances — 1 fragment —

4Q 3202

Priestly Courses II — 1 fragment

4Q 3212

Priestly Courses I — 2 fragments —

4Q 323—324A-B2

Priestly Courses III—-Aemilius Kills — 5 manuscripts in 12 fragments —

4Q 3252

Priestly Courses IV — 2 fragments — dt>4Q 3762

Tongues of Fire.

4Q 3852

Pseudo-Jeremiah — 3 fragments

4Q 385—3892

Second Ezekiel — 6 fragments

4Q 3902

The Angels of Mastermoth and the Rule of Belial — 2 fragments

4Q 394—398 — MMT2 or ‘some words of the Torah’2 or ‘some works of the Torah’

The First Letter on Works Reckoned as Righteousness —

4Q 397—3992

The Second Letter on Works Reckoned as Righteousness — 1 fragment

4Q 4142

Baptismal Hymn — 4 fragments

4Q 416, 418 — Yeshac2

The Children of Salvation (Yeshac) and The Mystery of Existence — 10 fragments —

4Q 424 — Proverbs2

The Sons of Righteousness — 2 fragments —

4Q 434, 4362

Hymns of the Poor — 3 fragments —

4Q 448 — Alexander Jannaeus2

Paean for King Jonathan — 1 fragment —

4Q 458 — A Fragmentary Apocalypse2

The Tree of Evil — 2 fragments —

4Q 4622

The Era of Light is Coming — 1 fragment —

4Q 4712

The Servants of Darkness — 4 fragments —

Previous Discussion: None.

4Q 477 — A Record of Sectarian Discipline2

He Loved His Bodily Emissions — 1 fragment —

4Q 5212

The Messiah of Heaven and Earth — 5 fragments —

Previous Discussion: R.H. Eisenman, ‘A Messianic Vision’, BAR Nov/Dec (1991) p. 65.

4Q 5222

Joshua Apocryphon — 1 fragment —

4Q 525 — Beatitudes2

The Demons of Death — 10 fragments —

4Q 5292

The Words of Michael — 1 fragment —

4Q 5322

Enochic Book of Giants — 6 fragments —

4Q 534—5362

The Birth of Noah — 3 fragments —

Previous Discussion: J. Starky.

4Q 541 — Aaron A2

A Firm Foundation — 6 fragments —

4Q 5422

Testament of Kohath — 3 fragments —

4Q 543, 545—5482

Testament of Amram — 4 manuscripts in 7 fragments —

4Q 5442

Hur and Miriam — 1 fragment —

4Q 5472

Visions of the Four Kingdoms — 4 fragments —

4Q 5502

Stories from the Persian Court — 1 fragment —

4Q 5542

The New Jerusalem — 1 fragment —

4Q 5592

A Biblical Chronology — 3 fragments —

4Q 5602

An Amulet Formula Against Evil Spirits — 1 fragment —

4Q 5612

A Physiognomic Text — 6 fragments —


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 5

5Q 1 (5Q Deut) 5Q Deuteronomy b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 169—171, pl. XXXVI. A fragment with remains of two columns of Deuteronomy.

5Q 2 (5Q Kgs) 5Q Kings b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 171—172, pl. XXXVI. Remains of 1 Kgs 1.

5Q 3 (5Q Isa) 5Q Isaiah b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 173, pl. XXXVI. A fragment with remains of Isa 40.

5Q 4 (5Q Amos) 5Q Amos b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 173—174, pl. XXXVI. A fragment with remains of Amos 1.

5Q 5 (5Q Ps) 5Q Psalms b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 174, pl. XXXVII. Remains of Ps 119.

5Q 6 (5Q Lama) 5Q Lamentationsa b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 174—177, pls. XXXVII—XXXVIII. Remains of a copy of Lamentations.

5Q 7 (5Q Lamb) 5Q Lamentationsb b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 177—178, pl. XXXVIII. A fragment with remains of another copy of Lam 4.

5Q 8 (5Q Phyl) 5Q Phylactery b

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 178, pl. XXXVIII. Phylactery in its case. Not unrolled.

5Q 9 5Q Work with Place Names ¤,0

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 179—180, pl. XXXVIII. Unidentified work with toponyms.

5Q 10 (5Q pMal?) 5Q Malachi Pesher ¤,1 [203]

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 180, pl. XXXVIII, 288. Identified as possibly a commentary on Malachi by J. Carmignac, RQ 4/13 (1963) 97—100.

5Q 11 (5Q S) 5Q Rule of the Community ¤,1 [32]

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 180—181, pl. XXXVIII, 110—124. Possibly a copy of the Rule of the Community, with remains of 1Q S ii 4—7 and ii 12—14(?).

5Q 12 (5Q D) 5Q Damascus Document ¤,1 [70—71]

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 181, pl. XXXVIII, 189—198. Copy of the Damascus Document, with remains of CD IX 7—10.

5Q 13 5Q Rule ¤,1 [73]

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 181—183, pls. XXXIX—XL, 210—211. Sectarian rule (?), inspired by 1Q S and CD, which cites 1Q S iii 4—5 in fragment 4.

5Q 14 5Q Curses ¤,1 [403]

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 183—184, pl. XL, 322. Written text with curses.

5Q 15 (5Q NJ ar) 5Q New Jerusalem ¤,1 [131—133]

J. T. Milik, DJD III, 184—193. Remains of an Aramaic work: ‘Description of the New Jerusalem’, which includes readings from the copy of the same work from 4Q.

5Q 16—25 5Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

Remains of unidentified works or of unclassified fragments.


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 6

6Q 1 (6Q palaeoGen) 6Q Genesis b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 105—106, pl. XX. A fragment with remains of Gn 6 in palaeo-Hebrew.

6Q 2 (6Q palaeoLev) 6Q Leviticus b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 106, pl. XX. A fragment in palaeo-Hebrew with remains of Lev 8.

6Q 3 (6Q Deut?) 6Q Deuteronomy (?) b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 106—107, pl. XX. A fragment with remains of, possibly, of Deut 26.

6Q 4 (6Q Kgs) 6Q Kings b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 107—112, pl. XX—XXII. Remains of a copy of 1 and 2 Kgs.

6Q 6 (6Q Cant) 6Q Canticles b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 112—114, pl. XXIII. A fragment with remains of Cant 1.

6Q 7 (6Q Dan) 6Q Daniel b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 114—116, pl. XXIII. Remains of a copy of Daniel.

6Q 8 (6Q En Giants ar) 6Q Giants ¤,1 [262]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 116—119, pl. XXIV. Published as a ‘Genesis apocryphon’, it was identified by Milik, Books, 300.309, as another copy of the Aramaic Book of Giants.

6Q 9 6Q Apocryphon on Samuel—Kings ¤,1 [284]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 119—123, pls. XXIV—XXV. Apocryphon, related to Sm—Kgs in content.

6Q 10 6Q Prophecy ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 123—125, pl. XXVI. Prophetic text (?).

6Q 11 6Q Allegory of the Vine ¤,1 [403]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 125—126, pl. XXVI. ‘Allegory of the Vine’.

6Q 12 6Q Apocryphal Prophecy ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 126, pl. XXVI. ‘Apocryphal Prophecy’ which uses a calculation in Jubilees.

6Q 13 6Q Priestly Prophecy ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 126—127, pl. XXVI. ‘Priestly Prophecy’ related to Ezra—Nehemiah (?).

6Q 14 6Q Apocalypse ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 127—128, pl. XXVI. Aramaic ‘Apocalyptic text’.

6Q 15 (6Q D) 6Q Damascus Document ¤,1 [71]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 128—131, pl. XXVI. Copy of the Damascus Document with remains of CD-A IV 19—21; V 13—14; V 18—VI 2; VI 20—VII 1, and a fragment with no equivalent in CD-A or CD-B.

6Q 16 6Q Benediction ¤,1 [437]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 131—132, pl. XXVII.Blessings.

6Q 17 6Q Calendrical Document ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 132—133, pl. XXVII. Fragment of a calendar.

6Q 18 6Q Hymn ¤,1 [403]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 133—136, pl. XXVII. Hymnic composition.

6Q 19 6Q Genesis (?) b,1 [227]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 136, pl. XXVIII.

6Q 20 6Q Deuteronomy (?) b,1 [228]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 136—137, pl. XXVIII, 357. Text related to Deut (?).

6Q 21—22 6Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 137, pl. XXVIII. Unidentified texts.

6Q 23 ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 138, pl. XXVIII. Aramaic text identified by Milik, Books, 91 as a copy of 4Q (Words of) Michael (?).

6Q 24—25 6Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 138, pl. XXVIII. Unidentified texts.

6Q 26 6Q Fragments of accounts or contracts ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 138—139, pl. XXIX. Remains of accounts or a contract in Aramaic.

6Q 27—31 6Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 129—141, pl. XXIX. Unidentified texts.


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 7

All the manuscripts recovered from this cave are in Greek and, until recently, were thought to be exclusively biblical compositions. There has been some conjecture that they were New Testament texts, however this seems so unlikely that it requires extraordinary supporting evidence to be taken seriously. The best recent evidence suggests something quite different.

Recent work by Ernest A. Muro, Jr. and Emile Puech identify certain of these Cave 7 fragments as parts of the Book of Enoch. Mr. Muro’s web site provides copies of these fragments, an introduction to the fragments from this cave, the complete text of his December 1997 article in Revue de Qumran, and a summary of the related article by Fr. Puech in the same issue. Their analyses cover fragments 4, 8, and 11—14.

7Q 1 (7Q LXX Exod) 7Q Septuagint Exodus b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 142—143, pl. XXX. Remains of chap. 28 of Exodus, in Greek.

7Q 2 (7Q LXX Ep Jer) 7Q Epistle of Jeremiah b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 143, pl. XXX. Remains of the Letter of Jeremiah, vv. 43—44.

7Q 3—19 7Q Unclassified fragments 0

M. Baillet, DJD III, 143—144, pl. XXX. Unidentified Greek manuscripts. Many of these have been ascribed to various biblical texts, however, the various authors are not always in agreement as to which fragment goes with which biblical text.


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 8

8Q 1 (8Q Gen) 8Q Genesis b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 147—148, pl. XXXI. Two fragments with remains of Gn 17—18.

8Q 2 (8Q Ps) 8Q Psalms b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 148—149, pl. XXXI. Remains of Pss 17—18.

8Q 3 (8Q Phyl) 8Q Phylactery b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 149—157, pls. XXXII—XXXIII. Remains of Exod 13:1-10; 13:11-16; Deut 6:4-9; 11:13; 6:1-3; 10:20-22; 10:12-19; Exod 12:43-51; Deut 5:1-14; Exod 20:11; Deut 10:13(?); 11:2; 10:21-22; 11:1.6-12.

8Q 4 (8Q Mez) 8Q Mezuzah b

M. Baillet, DJD III, 158—161, pl. XXXIV. Remains of Deut 10:12—11:21.

8Q 5 8Q Hymn ¤,1 [404]

M. Baillet, DJD III, 161—163, pl. XXXV. Hymnic text.


Manuscript from Qumran Cave 9

M. Baillet, DJD III, 163, pl. XXXV. Only a small fragment, as yet unidentified, was found.


Ostracon from Qumran Cave 10

One ostracon¤ was found, a piece of a jar with traces of two letters of the owner’s name, M. Baillet, DJD III, 164, pl. XXXV.


Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 11

11Q 1 (11Q palaeoLeva) 11Q Leviticusa b

D. N. Freedman, K. A. Mathews, The Palaeo-Hebrew Leviticus Scroll (11Q palaeoLev) (Winona Lake 1985). Copy of Leviticus in palaeo-Hebrew characters.

11Q 2 (11Q Levb) 11Q Leviticusb b

Two fragments with remains of another copy of Leviticus in palaeo-Hebrew characters.

11Q 3 (11Q Deut) 11Q Deuteronomy b

A fragment with remains of Deut 1.

11Q 4 (11Q Ez) 11Q Ezekiel b

W. H. Brownlee, RQ 14/13 (1963) 11—28, pls. I—II.

11Q 5 (11Q Psa) 11Q Psalmsa b,1 [304—310]

J. A. Saunders, DJD IV. Copy of Pss, in a different sequence from MT, with other pseudepigraphical compositions.

11Q 6 (11Q Psb) 11Q Psalmsb b,1 [310—311]

J. P. M. van der Ploeg, RB 74 (1967), 408—412, pl. XVIII. Another copy of the foregoing MS with remains of the ‘Plea for Deliverance’ 1—15 and of Pss 141:10; 133:1-3;144:1-2;118:1.15-16.

11Q 7 (11Q Psc) 11Q Psalmsc b

Remains of another copy of Pss.

11Q 8 (11Q Psd) 11Q Psalmsd b

Remains of another copy of Pss.

11Q 9 (11Q Pse) 11Q Psalmse b

Two fragments with remains of Pss 36—37 and 86, possibly another copy of Pss, or part of 11Q 7.

11Q 10 (11Q tg Job) 11Q Targum of Job ¤,1 [143—153]

Aramaic Targum of Job.

11Q 11 (11Q Ap Psa) 11Q Apocryphal Psalmsa ¤,1 [376—378]

Psalms for expelling demons. The MS ends with Ps 91.

11Q 12 (11Q Jub) 11Q Jubilees ¤,1 [241—242]

Copy of the Book of Jubilees.

11Q 13 (11Q Melcha) 11Q Mechizedec ¤,1 [139—140]

Eschatological pesher, based on Lv 28, with the angelic form of Melchizedek as the protagonist.

11Q 14 (11Q Bera) 11Q Blessings ¤,1 [124]

Collections of Blessings which come from the War Scroll.

11Q 15 (11Q Hymnsa) 11Q Hymnsa ¤,1 [404]

Collection of hymns. Only small fragment has been preserved.

11Q 16 (11Q Hymnsb) 11Q Hymnsb ¤,0

Another collection of hymns.

11Q 17 (11Q Shir Shabb) 11Q Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice ¤,1 [430—431]

Copy of the work ‘Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice’ which preserves the last part of the composition, with remains of the songs for the ninth, eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth Sabbaths.

11Q 18 (11Q NJ ar) 11Q New Jerusalem ¤,1 [133—135]

Copy of the Aramaic work ‘Description of the New Jerusalem’.

11Q 19 (11Q Templea) 11Q Temple Scrolla ¤,1 [154—179]

Y. Yadin, The Temple Scroll, 3 vols. and Suppl. (Jerusalem 1977:Hebrew edition; 1983:English edition with supplements) Complete edition of the Temple Scroll.

This is the scroll found under the tile floor of Kando’s house and confiscated by the Israeli army after they gained control the the West Bank following the Six Day War. Yadin had been negotiating with Kando for this scroll before the war without success. Eventually, the Israeli government paid Kando a total of $105,000 after negotiations lasting almost a year. The highest asking price prior to the war was $750,000.

Additional fragments were stored by Kando in a cigar box. Later it was learned that some additional fragments were stored behind family pictures in Kando’s home and that of his brother. All this material, along with one fragment given to Yadin during the earlier negotiations, constitute the Temple Scroll listed under this number and 11Q 20 (11Q Templeb) 11Q Temple Scrollb, 11Q Torah. As far as I can tell none of it was recovered from Cave 11 directly by trained archaeologists.

The scroll contains major portions of the Pentateuch, but it is frequently written in the first person. The same is true of the supplementary laws in the Temple Scroll that are not in the Pentateuch. Most interestingly, this Torah contains detailed plans for the Jerusalem Temple construction which are notably missing from the Pentateuch, though referred to indirectly in I Chronicles 28:11-19. Nearly half of the Temple Scroll is taken up with the plans for the Temple, sacrifices, and laws of the city of the Temple.

Yadin doubts that this is the actual missing scroll. When he named it the Temple Scroll, he was thinking rather that it may reflect knowledge of and an attempt to preserve an earlier tradition known to the author.

Another part of the Temple Scroll contains the so-called Statutes of the King. The original text was traditionally written by Samuel and laid before the King. No record of what Samuel wrote survives in the Torah. But it is referred to in Deuteronomy 17:15-20 and in I Samuel 8:11 ff.

For these and other reasons, Yadin concludes that this scroll was, for the Essenes (his term), a holy canonical book on a par with the other holy books of the Bible.

Yadin relates an interesting correspondence between the statues in the Temple Scroll and the known behavior of the Jerusalem Essenes as related by Josephus, who actually lived with a group of wilderness Essenes for a time as a young man. This concerns the laws on defecation. The law requires that the latrines be built 3000 cubits from the camps. Since the Essenes, the Temple Scroll, and the War Scroll considered the entire city of Jerusalem a camp, the toilets were outside the city by nearly a mile. Since 3000 cubits exceeds the distance allowed for walking on the Sabbath, the Essenes were not allowed to relieve themselves on the Sabbath. Josephus reports observing this behavior during his stay with the Essenes. Yadin notes that Josephus also refers to an Essene Gate, mentioned nowhere else, which may have been the one used by the Essenes when they left the city to relieve themselves. The Temple Scroll describes the building of public toilets northwest of the city. This reference provides a good clue to the location of the Essene Gate. Josephus mentions that near the Essene Gate was a place called Betsoe, which Yadin says is obviously Beth-Soah in Hebrew, i.e., a lavatory.

11Q 20 (11Q Templeb) 11Q Temple Scrollb, 11Q Torah ¤,1 [179—184]

Fragmentary remains of the Temple Scroll. It is not clear to me if these are the fragments subsequently discovered behind the family pictures in the homes of Kando and his brother or fragments found under Jordanian auspices and initially stored in the Palestine Archaeological Museum under the control of Roland de Vaux.

11Q 21—25 11Q Unclassified fragments ¤,0

Remains of unidentified works.